

















Syllabus:
STA250
Principles and Methods of Statistics
Dr. Markus, Spring 1998
Section Time Room
STA250.05 M, W 12:301:45 4100N
STA250.09 T, TH 1:553:10 2437N
Purpose: The purpose of this course is to provide an understanding of the basic use of statistics in socialscience research. This is not a mathematics course, and the focus will not be on computations. Rather, the focus will be on thinking statistically. Statistical thinking involves drawing sensible conclusions from various kinds of data by applying and interpreting appropriate statistics. This is a basic requirement for both doing social science research and for becoming an educated consumer of such research. The course will, however, require solving basic mathematical problems. MAT108 or MAT141 is required.
Texts: Moore, D. S. (1995). The Basic Practice of Statistics. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Natz, W & Busam, R. L. (1995). Study Guide for Moore's The Basic Practice of Statistics. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Gonick, L. & Smith, W. (1993). The Cartoon Guide to Statistics. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Note: Moore (1995) is the primary text, and will most closely follow the lectures. The other two books are intended as supplementary reading to help clarify the material.
Calculator: A calculator that does twovariable statistics (a.k.a. correlation & regression) is required. You may choose another calculator (e.g., Casio VPLM Fx 115S), but I have ordered the Sharp EL506L through the book store. Note: you have to ask for the calculator at the checkout. Calculators are generally also available at retail stores such as Staples and The Wiz.
Grading: There will be five (5) exams. Your four (4) highest grades will each count as 25% of your final grade. It is recommended that you take all five exams. Letter grades are given strictly according to the chart on page 36 of the Undergraduate Bulletin. Lobbying will not affect your grade. I do not give grades of incomplete (INC).
Typing of Exams: All answers to take home examinations must be typed. It is acceptable to write in special characters (e.g., µ, m, s, S, ¹, ³, £, Þ, Ö, and such) by hand. It is also acceptable to draw charts and tables by hand. Other than that, everything must be typed.
Late Exams: Exams are due in class at the beginning of the class indicated for the section in which you are registered. Late exams will not be accepted for a grade. There will be no makeup exams. Exams will not be accepted other than in person (e.g., no exams slipped under my door, placed in my mailbox, or mailed to me). I will allow a tenminute grace period at the beginning of class, but do not press your luck. If you think that you may be late, turn your examination in ahead of time during class or during office hours.
Cheating on Exams: I offer takehome examinations in this course for two reasons: First, they allow you more time to review material, work out the answers, and check your work. Second, they allow more time in class for lecture and review. In return, I have to be able to count on you to keep the trust and do your own work. A few people attempting to take advantage of the rest of us can spoil it for everyone. As a result, clear evidence of cheating will result in an automatic "F" grade for the course.
Extra credit: You can earn extra credit toward the next exam by turning in odd numbered section exercises in the class immediately following the class in which the material is covered. Do not confuse these with "exercises" or "chapter exercises." You can check your work against answers given in the back of the book, but you have to show how you got the answers to get credit. Extra credit homework need not be typed. Hand written answers are both acceptable and expected. Nevertheless, neatness is also expected.
Attendance: Attendance will not directly affect your grade. If you miss class regularly, however, you will probably fail the exams. Also, I am required to keep an attendance record and this can affect financial aid.
Requirements: To pass the course, you are required to take at least three (3) exams and earn a passing grade. Missing more than two (2) exams will result in an "F" grade.
Office hours: W 22:30 PM & Th 3:304PM, Room 2428N
Office Phone: (212) 2378795
Email: KMarkus@AOL.COM
Course Information, Grades, etc.: http://members.aol.com/KMarkus
Posting of Grades: I do not post grades on my door. Why? Because I think that you should know more than just your final grade and when I tried to post additional information on my door it disappeared in a matter of hours. At this point you should all be able to go to a library and use a Web browser. (My Mom went to her local library to check my Web site. If she could do that, so can you.) Final grades, along with final exam grades, will be posted at the course Web page accessible through the above URL.
If you are totally freaked about this, give me a stamped selfaddressed envelope and I will mail you your grade. If you want your final exam back, you can pick it up at my office, or give me a stamped selfaddressed envelope with sufficient postage for your exam paper. Please do not ask the Department Secretary for your grade.
M,W T,Th Topics M 2/2 T 2/3 Introduction to course. Data. Statistics. W 2/4 TH 2/5 Graphing distributions. Book Introduction,* Chapter 1 Introduction, Part 1.1, Gonick & Smith (G&S) Chapter 1 M 2/9 T 2/10 Describing distributions with numbers. Part 1.2, G&S Chapter 2 W 2/11 T 2/17 Normal distributions. Part 1.3, G&S Chapter 4 M 2/16 TH 2/12 College closed for Washington's & Lincoln's birthdays. W 2/18 TH 2/19 Review & questions. Exam One Distributed. Studyguide: Chapter 1 M 2/23 T 2/24 Categorical Data. Chapter 2 Introduction, Part 2.5 W 2/25 TH 2/26 Exam One Due; Scatterplots. Part 2.1 M 3/2 T 3/3 Correlation. Part 2.2, G&S Chapter 11 W 3/4 TH 3/5 Correlation continued. Part 2.3 M 3/9 T 3/10 Regression. Part 2.4 W 3/11 TH 3/12 Regression continued. M 3/16 T 3/17 Review & questions. Exam Two Distributed. Studyguide: Chapter 2 W 3/18 TH 3/19 Sampling distributions. Chapter 4 Introduction, Part 4.1, G&S Chapter 3, 5 & 6 M 3/23 T 3/24 Exam Two Due; Sampling distributions continued. W 3/25 TH 3/26 Sample proportions. Part 4.3 M 3/30 T 3/31 Sample proportions continued. W 4/1 TH 4/2 Sample means. Part 4.5 4/1 last day to resign without academic penalty. M 4/6 T 4/7 Review & questions. Exam Three Distributed. Studyguide: Chapter 4 W 4/8 Friday schedule. M 4/13 T 4/14 Spring Recess. W 4/15 TH 4/16 Spring Recess. M 4/20 TH 4/9 Confidence intervals. Chapter 5 Introduction, Part 5.1, G&S Chapter 7 W 4/22 T 4/21 Exam Three Due; Confidence intervals continued. M 4/27 TH 4/23 Significance tests. Part 5.2, G&S Chapter 8 W 4/29 T 4/28 Significance tests continued. M 5/4 TH 4/30 Interpreting significance tests. Part 5.3 W 5/6 T 5/5 Review & questions. Exam Four Distributed. Studyguide: Chapter 5 M 5/11 TH 5/7 Inference about a population mean. Chapter 6 Introduction, Part 6.1 W 5/13 T 5/12 Exam Four Due; Inference about a population mean continued. M 5/18 TH 5/14 Comparing two means. Part 6.2, G&S Chapter 9 W 5/20 T 5/19 Review & questions. Exam Five Distributed. Studyguide: Chapter 6, G&S Chapter 12 W 5/27/98 (Noon  2pm) T 5/26/98 (12:302:30) Exam Five Due. (Final Exam week.) *Readings are from text except where indicated as Studyguide.
I continue to get positive feedback about this email list. The list in intended for students who are studying statistics. It is a "safe" environment in which you can ask questions, discuss problems, or just lurk and learn from other people's conversation. To subscribe to the list, send an email message to:
listserv@asuvm.inre.asu.edu
containing the following:
subscribe STUDSTAT [your first name] [your last
name]
inside the body of the email (not in the subject).
The subscribe command and the STUDSTAT name should be typed as is. Your
first and last name should be substituted for the phrases in brackets.
Do not use brackets in your message.
After you subscribe, you should receive a message back with further information about using the email list.
The following stemandleaf plot gives the distribution of grades on Exam One for both sections together. The grades are expressed as a percent. The percents include extra credit and are out of a maximum 30 points on the exam. (There were several perfect papers.) Two exams which were turned in late received a grade of zero and are not included in the distribution. One paper, included below, received a three point deduction because it was not typed. See syllabus for lettergrade equivalents.
11  0 10  7 8 10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 9  7 7 7 8 9  0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 8  7 7 7 8  0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 7  7  0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 6  5 7 6  0 0 0 3 3 5  7 7 7 5  4  8 4  3 3  3  2  2  1  1  0  0 
There were 51 papers turned in. With both peaks of the bimodal distribution in the "A" range, and only three failing papers, the overall performance on this examination was not bad, despite the difficulties with question one. Historically, somewhat lower grades on this examination are not uncommon, probably attributable to the fact that it comes at midterm time. The distribution also contains one paper that was penalized 3 points for not typing.
Here is the distribution:
11 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 7
11 0 0
10 7
10 0 0 3 3 3
09 7 7 7
09 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3
08 5 7
08 0 0 0 0 0
07 7 7 7
07 0 0 3 3
06 7 7 7 8
06 0 0 2
05 7 8
05 0
04 
04 
03 
03 
02 
02 
11  0
10  5 7 7 7 7
10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
09  5 5 7 7 7 7 7 8
09  0 0 2 3 3
08  7
08  0 0 0 0 3
07  7
07  0 0 3
06  5 7 7 7 8
06  0 0 3 3 3
05  7 7
05  0 3
04 
04  0 3
03 
03  0 3 3
02 
02 
01 
01 
00 
00 
11
110 0 0 0
107 7 7 8 8 8
100 0 0 0 2 3 3 3 5
095 7 7 8 8
090 0 0 0 0 0 3
085 7 8
080 0 0 3 3
077 8 8
070 0 2 3 3
067 7
063
055 7 7 7
053
04
040
037
03
Everyone who did the bonus question received full credit (3 points) for it. Most people did. At least one person received full credit on each question (1, 2a & 2b), but nobody received full credit on every question. The highest grade was 27.5%. Here is the distribution:
11
110
105 5 5
102 2 3
95 5 8
92 3
85 8 8
82
78 8 8 8 8 8
72
65 8
62 3
5
52
4
42
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
Fall 1997 Grades by Section:
These are, of necessity, unofficial grades. However, they have been copied via the clipboard directly from the Excel workbook I used to compute them to this HTML file. As a result, there should be no inaccuracies. Please let me know if you think that there is an error in the calculation of the grade resulting in a lower grade than you should have received. (Grades lower than wanted need not be brought to my attention.)
Grades are listed below separately by section. The number under "Code" is your secret identification number. The number under "T5raw" is your raw score on examination five. The number under "T5pct" is your percentage grade on the examination, including the bonus question and extra credit. The highest grade was 27.5%, so the "hard test" adjustment explained in class was applied. The percent under "Course" is your final grade in the course. "Letter" gives the letter grade reported to the registrar.
Spring 1998 Section 05 Grades:
See above for explanation.
SEC5 Code T5raw T5pct Course Letter 8506 0  81.7% B 6949 0  48.8% F 3042 0  102.5% A 4576 16 62% 58.8% F 3981 0  2.1% W 6943 17 78% 82.9% B 8245 0  97.5% A 2147 0  105.0% A 7718 23 98% 94.2% A 3690 18 78% 89.2% B+ 9074 0  94.6% A 1145 0  72.1% C 9670 0  20.4% W 9221 0  107.9% A 3486 0  102.5% A 2588 0  96.7% A 9836 22.5 93% 71.7% C 1524 0  103.3% A 4135 0  16.3% W 6757 10 52% 73.8% C 4506 24 102% 87.1% B+ 8559 0  11.3% F 5310 0  79.6% C+ 6809 0  85.4% B 0563 22 95% 87.5% B+ 8944 0  108.3% A 7886 10 42% 87.1% B+ 2631 0  92.9% A 1088 26 105% 88.8% B+ 2941 18 78% 75.4% C 3753 0  94.2% A 8720 21 88% 86.3% B 8762 0  97.5% A 5341 18 68% 69.6% D+ 6374 27.5 110% 79.2% C+Fall 1997 Section 09 Grades:
See above for explanation.
SEC9 Code T5raw T5pct Course Letter 3145 0  97.5% A 5028 0  98.3% A 0852 0  93.8% A 6477 14 65% 67.1% D+ 2284 0  2.1% W 5536 0  95.0% A 9884 19 82% 72.5% C 4682 0  83.3% B 5826 0  2.1% W 4749 0   WU 1006 0  91.7% A 5257 24 105% 102.5% A 1976 0  43.8% F 8415 21 88% 75.4% C 3614 24 103% 80.0% B 1762 3 78% 82.1% B 7428 0  102.9% A 5282 3 92% 76.7% C 4164 0  95.4% A 7427 3 63% 65.8% D 2773 3 85% 72.1% C 0312 0  73.3% C 1120 17 78% 84.2% B 7321 0  92.5% A 5841 16 72% 77.9% C+ 2368 0  101.7% A 5842 0  90.0% A 8879 0  50.0% F 5029 18 78% 82.5% B 3711 25 102% 84.6% B 6929 23 95% 82.9% B 8691 0  95.0% A 5160 24 105% 97.5% A 6493 0  4.6% W 9487 0  81.7% B

